Beware of Plastics

Beware of Plastics

Plastic is everywhere: food, packaging, clothing, toys, kitchen, etc. It is hard to believe that something we love and have simplified our lives so much turned out to be so damaging to the environment and potentially harmful to our health.

As time goes by, more and more scientists and research organizations say that plastic should not be assumed to be safe. In fact, toxins from plastic bottles and containers can leach into food and drinks, posing a serious health risk. And even more seriously when used to heat food in the microwave.

The worst concern is bisphenol-A or BPA, which has been linked to cancer, infertility, obesity and even early puberty in animal studies. It is alarming to learn that a CDC study found this chemical in 93% of people tested. BPA has also been found inside metal food and soda cans.

Play it safe and do not heat anything with plastic in the microwave — use glass or microwave safe ceramics. If you must use plastic anywhere else, stay with the “safer” plastics, which are numbered #1, 2, 4 and 5, and avoid #3, 6 and 7.


Drinking Water: Filtered Tap or Bottled?

Drinking Water: Filtered Tap or Bottled?

Which one is better?

It is a fact that plastic bottle’s impact has been very detrimental on the environment. The making of the plastic bottle in the US uses over 1.5 million barrels of oil, enough to run 100,000 cars for a year. About 80% of the bottles are not recycled, causing about 38 billion of them to continue to clog landfills every year, where they take over 700 years to even begin to decompose.

On the other hand, many parts of the US provide quality tap water. In fact, bottle companies like Pepsi’s Aquafina and Coke’s Dasani use filtered municipal water. And for children, tap water is even beneficial — it contains fluoride.

So, if plastic is a petroleum based product and a source of phthalates, a very harmful chemical, and filtered tap water is a safe option that not only is beneficial but also can be less contaminated than bottled and cheaper, why is bottled water so popular? Many people are yet to consider all the benefits about filtered tap water and the negative impact of the bottled water. Furthermore, bottled water has been a convenience for the “on the go” lifestyle.

Spread the news and lead by example. Install a filtered system at home (many are quite inexpensive) and use an aluminum carrying bottle. Kick the water bottle habit, protect the environment, save money and live healthier… UpGreen!

For more information about your local tap water, go to:

Why Organic Clothing?

Why Organic Clothing?

For starters, you might not know that cotton is the most intensive pesticide-use crop in the world. Also, clothes made from synthetic fibers like acrylic, nylon and polyester is coated with formaldehyde, which is a very harmful chemical. Considering that our skin absorbs quickly and easily these vapors and substances, it is imperative to take a good look at why organic clothing is becoming more popular.

Furthermore, children’s fire-resistant night clothing are made with polybrominated diphenyl ether, which has been linked to brain and thyroid development problems.

Organic clothing is becoming more competitive as well as fashionable. Even Hollywood celebrities are jumping on the bandwagon. There are many websites providing a variety of women, men and children apparel. Here are just a few:,,,, and many others.

Go ahead… UpGreen!

The Leak Hunter — Bet you can’t find just one!

The Leak Hunter — Bet you can’t find just one!

By Danny M. Orlando, Energy Star Regional Program Manager

Understanding the Problem

It’s been ten years since I first began to understand the relationship between energy leaks in my house and the size of my monthly energy bill. Energy leaks cost you money and come in many shapes and sizes. Go exploring in your house and you will find air leaks, energy leaks, duct leaks, and inefficiencies. All of these are directly related to how high your power bill is and many affect the comfort level in your house.

Like many of you, when I purchased my home (circa 1985) in 1991, I was only interested that the air conditioner and furnace were in working order. Energy leaks were not on my mind until the utility bills started growing and comfort issues became evident. During this time period, the cost of power per therm [1] or kilowatt-hour also started to rise. Not coincidentally, as the cost of power grew, so did my knowledge of energy efficiency.

An event that stands out in my mind and that made me realize I had more than a minor problem occurred one cold winter morning. The temperature approached zero degrees Fahrenheit, which for Atlanta is unusual, and the windows in my kitchen had a considerable amount of ice forming on the inside of the aluminum window frames. Even if you don’t know much about energy efficiency, this type of event should get your attention because ice on the inside of your home in the winter is a clear sign that cold air is moving into your house. There were other signs of inefficiencies too: The bedrooms farthest from the heating and air system (HVAC) were hot in the summer and cold in the winter; I would dust one day and have to dust again the next day; the garage was often more comfortable than some of the living areas, and some of my exposed garage and attic insulation was looking like age had turned it black.

As my knowledge grew, so did the realization that something needed to be done to correct these problems. I focused first on the cost and the associated payback for the investments. Some projects had a good payback in dollars and others did not. However, I learned, like those who choose leather seats for their cars, that payback isn’t everything. Comfort can many times be the main reason for initiating an energy efficiency project. Another compelling reason can be your health or that of your family. The air in your home can be more polluted than the air outside even in metropolitan cities. EPA states that we spend approximately 90 percent of our time indoors.[2] In general, indoor air is four to five times more polluted than outdoor air.[3] These are all good reasons for getting a better understanding of building science or asking for help to improve your indoor environment.

Where to Start

The first and most important information I received was from a blower-door test and discussion offered by a local HVAC contractor in 1996. A blower-door test determines how leaky your home is and identifies where leaks are occurring in your house. To understand this test, imagine blowing up a beach ball that has many holes in it.[4] The amount of air it takes to keep the ball inflated is measured as CFM50 (cubic feet per minute at 50 Pascal’s [5] of pressure).[6] The higher CFM50 is, the leakier the house. The results from this test set me on my path to energy efficiency. This analytical test of your house is the most important step most homeowners can take before deciding on what energy upgrades to pursue.[7] If you begin energy efficiency projects without this information, you can make mistakes, some of which can be costly. In some cases, you can even make the situation worse.

So, what did I learn during this initial assessment? I learned that my house was very leaky (3733 CFM50). The amount of leakage was like a hole in the side of my house, three by one foot, open all the time. I felt like I lived in Pandora’s Box. Some of the problems identified could be fixed without hiring a contractor (DIY) and some would require professional assistance (C). The problem areas included:

  • the main bathroom had a very deep skylight. The shaft leading to the roof was at least twelve-feet in length. The skylight was sucking costly conditioned air out of the house into the attic. (DIY)
  • the furnace flue shaft leading from the basement to the attic was another route for conditioned air to escape and needed to be sealed. (DIY and/or C)
  • convective loops, heat transfer caused by air movement, were a problem throughout the house. When hot attic air travels into interior walls it causes energy losses in your house. (DIY)
  • unsealed penetrations were everywhere – under sinks and bathtubs, along the walls, and around the ceiling light fixtures. (DIY)
  • the wall separating the garage from the house also had some electrical penetrations. (DIY)
  • exterior doors were not sealing properly and the attic hatch was not insulated or sealed. (C)
  • the main floor of the home overhangs the basement (the upstairs has a larger area than the downstairs). This difference in area causes and overhang or cantilever which can create cavities that are conditioned space on one side, but are exposed to the elements on the other side. These are trouble and you lose energy in many ways. They need to be air sealed and insulated. (DIY and/or C) we suspected that the ducts were very leaky and needed to be sealed. (DIY)
  • let’s not forget the ice on the window frames in the winter! (DIY and/or C)

These were just a few of the problems found and over the ensuing years, more were discovered. Many of the problems were inexpensive to fix. Indeed one of the things I learned through my leak hunting activities is that air leakage is one area where doing it yourself can make sense, but some work may require professional help.

Leak Hunting

Be warned, leak hunting can be addictive. Once you start it’s hard to stop. Every leak is like finding dollar bills lying on the floor. Twenty-five to forty percent of the energy we pay for is typically wasted because of air leakage in a typical home. [8] Leaky homes are a problem because the leaks can allow humidity, dust and allergens, outdoor air pollution, evaporative emissions from cars and lawn equipment in attached garages, and bugs. All leaky areas can lead to comfort issues and sometimes to health problems. Reduced air infiltration combined with proper ventilation cannot only reduce your energy bill, but it can also improve the quality of the air inside your house. Outdoor air that leaks into your house can make it difficult to maintain comfort and can lead to high energy bills. Remember when I started this process in 1996; my house had an air flow of 3733 CFM50. The most current blower door test results yielded a 1970 CFM50. This infiltration measurement is a 47 percent improvement since the original test. If the house were any tighter, active ventilation to introduce outside air would need to be installed. “Building tightness limits, for single family homes without whole-house ventilation system, vary between 1000 to 3000 CFM50 – depending on height, occupancy, wind and shielding.” [9] Remember from above that a tight house is more comfortable and comfort has a lot to do with stable humidity. Consider a rainy and foggy summer Georgia morning when moisture is sp prevalent it is literally dripping off the outside of the windows. When this occurs, the humidity in my house is about 47 percent. The flip side is the 20 percent humidity winter day when it is thirty degrees Fahrenheit outside. Once again the humidity indoors will be about 42 percent. Humidity is an important indicator of air leakage and of how well your home is performing. You should consider purchasing an inexpensive hygrometer to keep track of the humidity in your home.

Another key area for wasted energy is from your air duct system, particularly those located in crawl spaces and in attics. Ducts typically leak 7-12 percent or more of the conditioned air delivered into them.[10] However, it is not uncommon to find completely disconnected ducts that can be wasting most of the conditioned air sent through them. Conditioned air costs you money and you want it to go where it was intended. Sealing duct leakage and air leakage around the main air handler where pressures are highest can yield great benefits. The leakage test for ductwork is called a ‘duct-blaster’ and is similar to the blower-door test except it is designed just for the duct system. Ducts should be sealed with mastic. Mastic is a fiber-reinforced putty-like compound. You can buy mastic at local home improvement stores. Mastic is a wonderful material for sealing air leaks. Investigate your ducts (peel the insulation away from the duct area you are working on) where they bend and where they connect to the main trunk lines. Don’t use duct tape or any type of tape for air sealing. Tapes do not permanently seal ductwork any better than tape would stop a leak in a water hose.

I sealed the ducts in my house with mastic in 1997-98 and was fortunate that they were easily accessible. The duct blaster test indicated only 4.8 percent leakage and most of my ducts are in the conditioned envelope of the house. Duct sealing is particularly critical when they are located in unconditioned areas such as the attic, garage, or crawlspace. If they are not accessible, your only real choice is to have a contractor use an adhesive sealer that can be blown into the ductwork.[11]

If you want to be a leak hunter, winter is a great time. On a cold and windy winter day, slowly check for leaks all throughout your house. The wind pressure on your house will cause the pressure differences needed to find many leaky areas and the cold air will make them easy to feel. Another way to spot leaks in your attic is to turn on the lights in your house at night and go take a peek in the attic. Many of the leaks will be lit up. Once you find some leaks, it’s time to grab the can of foam, rigid foam board, or mastic and jump into action.

Getting to Work

In 1996, my eyes were opened and I began to fix the problems that were identified. Here is a list of improvements made since 1996; however, they could have been implemented in a more systematic order that could have saved additional energy. The reason I mention the order of installation is that you optimally would want to reduce the lighting load first (install compact fluorescent lamps as a replacement for incandescent and halogen lamps and use dimmers and occupancy controls to turn off lights when not being used), tune up the existing system (programmable thermostats and air sealing), reduce the exterior/interior heat loads (i.e. spectrally selective windows, window tinting, lighting controls, planting trees, Energy Star appliances, and so on), seal the duct work and examine insulation levels, and finally consider replacing the heating and cooling system. One benefit of doing the upgrades in this order is that the heating and cooling system can be sized as small as possible, saving additional money. But, life’s situations do not always allow you to proceed in the perfect order.


Pay Now or Pay Later

Since I began this journey ten years ago, my energy usage has decreased 32 percent. At ten cents per kilowatt-hour that is an annual savings of about $600.00 dollars. With rapidly increasing energy costs, the decision to install the smallest and most efficient gas furnace available is turning out to be a very good decision. One contractor told me that a 96.6 percent efficient furnace would never pay for itself. He was wrong. Most of the upgrades I installed paid for themselves within six years. The window retrofits were the payback exception. As a general rule, retrofitting windows in an existing home in the South does not make economic sense at least in the short to medium term. In my case however, the payback from the new more efficient windows is as much an issue of comfort as it is cost savings. In new construction, upgrading the windows to the best available technology that makes sense in your climate will provide an excellent payback. Most new residential codes in the U.S. now require low-emissivity spectrally-selective windows in new construction.[17]

All the performance data on the home sounds great, but I was curious and daring enough to pay for an energy rating known as the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) to see just how efficient or how successful I had been. [18] If the house could perform as required by HERS, I would have achieved what few have done – qualified an existing home as an ENERGY STAR.[19] Late in 2005, the results were in and the home qualified as ENERGY STAR! Amazingly, ten years of leak hunting had finally scored the trophy.

Final Words

In today and tomorrow’s energy market, you can’t afford not to be energy efficient. Why not have a home that is extremely comfortable, potentially more valuable as an asset, [20] and incur energy costs far lower than in the average home month after month? As Americans, our energy appetite continues to grow to feed our endless array of electronic devices and larger homes. Using energy efficiently and buying renewable power, where it is available, is the path that will lead all of us to a sustainable [21] and affordable future.

38 Tips for Reducing Green House Gas Emissions

38 Tips for Reducing Green House Gas Emissions

At Home

  • Change your light bulbs. Swap out incandescents with compact fluorescents (CFLs). Replace the five most frequently used conventional light bulbs with Energy Star rated ones and you’ll save approximately $100/yr. CO2 emission reductions: 120 lbs/bulb/yr
  • Turn off incandescent light bulbs when leaving a room. CO2 emission reductions: 89 lbs/yr
  • Buy energy-efficient appliances. Energy Star appliances use 10 to 50% less energy and water than traditional products. CO2 emission reductions: dishwasher – 340 lbs/yr, refrigerator – 780 lbs/yr and washing machine – 1,200 lbs/yr
  • Use a microwave instead of a conventional oven to reheat small quantities of food. CO2 emission reductions: 1 lb/meal
  • Use passive solar to capture heat in your home by opening the curtains during the day, and closing them at dusk. In the summer, keep curtains closed during the hottest hours of the day. Besides carbon, you’ll save 25–75% on you heating and cooling bills. CO2 emission reductions: 2,700 lbs/yr
  • Adjust your thermostat down 2°F in winter and up 2°F in the summer and you’ll save approximately $100/yr. CO2 emission reductions: 420 lbs/yr
  • Set your water heater at 120°F. CO2 emission reductions: electric water heater – 1,200 lbs/yr and natural gas – 880 lbs/yr
  • Replace exterior lights around your home with solar powered ones. CO2 emission reductions: 110 lbs/yr
  • Clean your air filters regularly and have your heating and cooling equipment tuned annually. CO2 emission reductions: 350 lbs/yr
  • Run your ceiling fans instead of AC. CO2 emission reductions: 2,700 lbs/yr
  • Buy green power or ask your utility to offer it. The typical U.S. home consumes ~10,000 kilowatt-hours/year. Using electricity that is generated from renewable energy sources such as wind and the sun could reduce the annual CO2 emissions by 22,000 lbs.
  • Use a low flow showerhead. CO2 emission reductions: electric – 1,800 lbs/yr and natural gas – 430 lbs/yr
  • Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle items such as: newspapers, beverage containers, paper and other goods. This reduces pollution from resource extraction, manufacturing, and disposal. CO2 emission reductions: 1,300 lbs/yr
  • Use cold water to wash and rinse clothes, instead of hot or warm water. You’ll save ~0.50 cents/load. CO2 emission reductions: 27 lbs/yr
  • Plant trees to provide shade and wind protection for your house. Cooling and heating savings 2-18% depending on the location and size of the tree. CO2 emission reductions: 35-800 lbs/yr (dependent on the size)
  • Push an electric mower or better yet a reel mower rather than a gas model. CO2 emission reductions: 80 lbs/yr. If you do use a power mower, make sure it’s a mulching mower to reduce grass clippings sent to landfills.
  • Hang laundry to dry. CO2 emission reductions: 4 lbs/yr/load
  • Use rechargeable (lithium-ion batteries) instead of standard AA or AAA batteries to power small electronics. CO2 emission reductions: 450 lbs/yr
  • Say no to carpeting your home. CO2 emission reductions: 4,000 lbs/800 sq. ft.
  • Consume less meat and buy local produce. It takes energy to raise, farm, ship, and sell livestock. CO2 emission reductions: 1.5 tons/yr

At the Office

  • Activate the power management features on your computer and monitor. Unplug laptops and turn off equipment and lights at the end of the day.
  • Purchase ENERGY STAR qualified office equipment, such as computers, copiers, and printers, as well as lighting, heating and cooling equipment. These products use 30-75% less electricity.
  • Obtain ENERGY STAR certification for your office building. ENERGY STAR-labeled buildings use about 35 percent less energy than traditional buildings.
  • Use recycled paper (100% post-consumer). CO2 emission reductions: 6 lbs/ream
  • Telecommute. CO2 emission reductions: 5,700 lbs/yr
  • Use a laptop, not a desktop. Laptops use up to 80% less energy. CO2 emission reductions: 400 lbs/yr

On The Road

  • Buy Smart – before buying or renting a vehicle, check out EPA’s Green Vehicle Guide at: This resource provides information on emissions, fuel economy, and performance.
  • Drive Smart — to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions, accelerate gradually and drive the speed limit. CO2 emission reductions: 250 lbs/yr
  • Use cruise control on the highway: CO2 emission reductions: 100 lbs/yr
  • Combine errands into one trip and save 500 miles of driving/yr. CO2 emission reductions: 510 lbs/yr
  • Lighten your load. 100 pounds of junk in the trunk can reduce gas mileage by 2%. CO2 emission reductions: 10 lbs/yr
  • Check your air filter monthly and replace it when it looks dirty. CO2 emission reductions: 800 lbs/yr
  • Keep tires properly inflated. Under-inflated tires increase tire wear, reduce fuel economy by up to 3%, and emit more pollutants into the air. CO2 emission reductions: 100 lbs/yr
  • Use your AC sparingly, or not at all. CO2 emission reductions: sparingly – 100 lbs/yr and never – 600 lbs/yr
  • Don’t idle for more than 10 seconds; instead, turn off your engine. CO2 emission reductions: 500 lbs/10 non-idling minutes
  • Carpool or bus or ride your bike to work instead of driving besides saving you money you’ll also help the environment. CO2 emission reductions: carpool – 500 lbs/yr, bus – 690 lbs/yr and bike – 2,220 lbs/yr
  • Remove your roof rack when you’re not using it; a rack can reduce fuel efficiency by 5%. CO2 emission reductions: 250 lbs/yr
  • Consider using renewable fuels. Use biodiesel or ethanol to fuel your vehicle or drive a hybrid. CO2 emission reductions: 50 lbs/100 miles driven.

SOURCE: Orange County’s ORANGE to GREEN website.

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